Somalia

Somalia

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War & minor conflict
1975 -
Somalia: government Ethiopia - Somalia
Non-state conflict
1989 -
Abdalle subclan of Habar Awal clan (Isaaq) - Aidagalla subclan of Habar Garhadjis clan (Isaaq) Abdalle-Aroneh subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Eli-Omar subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) Abdalleh-Agon-Yar subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Eli-Agon-Yar subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) Abdulleh-Galmaha subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Kabaloh subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Galgalo Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Xawaadle clan (Hawiye) Afi subclan of Galje'el clan (Hawiye) - Abtisame subclan of Galje'el clan (Hawiye) Agon-Yar sub-clan of the Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Warsangeli sub-clan of the Abgal clan (Hawiye) Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca - Al-Shabaab Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca - Hizbul Islam AIAI - SSDF Al-Shabaab - Hizbul Islam Al-Shabaab - SVA Ali-Gaf subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Mahadade subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) ARPCT - ARS/UIC Ayr subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) - Sa'ad subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) Dabare subclan of Digil clan (Digil-Mirifle) - Luway subclan of Mirifle clan (Digil-Mirifle) Da'ud subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Warsangeli subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) Dir clan - Marehan subclan of Sede clan (Darod) Dir clan - Sa'ad subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) DSA - USC/SNA Duduble subclan of Gorgarte clan (Hawiye) - Suleiman subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) Fiqi Mohamed subclan of Mehe clan (Dir) - Marehan subclan of Sede clan (Darod) Forces of Abdirizak Bihi-Forces of Ahmed Sheikh Buraleh Forces of Abdullahi Yusuf - Forces of Jama Ali Jama Forces of Abdullahi Yusuf - Forces of Yussuf Hajji Nur Forces of Abdurahman Ahmed Ali 'Tuur' - Republic of Somaliland Forces of General Morgan - Forces of Omar Jess Forces of General Morgan - JVA Forces of Hussein Ali Ahmed - USC/SSA Forces of Omar Jess - SPM Gaadsan subclan of Biimaal clan (Dir) - Ma'alin Weyne subclan of Mirifle clan (Digil-Mirifle) Galje'el clan (Hawiye) - Jejele subclan of Jibedi clan (Hawiye) Galje'el clan (Hawiye) - Xawaadle clan (Hawiye) Garre subclan of Digil clan (Digil-Mirifle) - Jiddo subclan of Digil clan (Digil-Mirifle) Garre subclan of Digil clan (Digil-Mirifle) - Marehan subclan of Sede clan (Darod) Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) - Marehan subclan of Sede clan (Darod) Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) - Xawaadle clan (Hawiye) Hawarsame Rer Hasan and Habar Ya'qub subclan of Marehan clan (Darod) - Rer Ahmad subclan (Hawiye) Huber subclan of Mirifle clan (Digil-Mirifle) - Yantar subclan of Mirifle clan (Digil-Mirifle) JVA - JVA faction Khatumo administration - Republic of Somaliland Mohamed Muse subclan of Abgal clan (Hawiye) - Warsangeli subclan of Abgal (Hawiye) Mujahideen in the Golis Mountain - Puntland state of Somalia Puntland state of Somalia - Republic of Somaliland Qubeys subclan (Dir) - Suleiman subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) Republic of Somaliland - SNM - calan cas RRA - RRA - MH RRA - USC/SNA Sa'ad subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) - Saleban-Abdalla subclan of Majerteen clan (Darod) Sa'ad subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) - Suleiman subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye) SNF - SNF-MSAB SNF - USC/SNA SPM - SPM/SNA SSDF - USC/SNA USC/SNA - USC-PM USC/SNA - USC/SNA-OA USC/SSA - USC/SSA-OMF
One-sided violence
1989 -
Government of Somalia - civilians Al-Shabaab - civilians RRA - civilians SPM/SNA - civilians
Peace agreement
1975 -
Somalia
Additional info
No additional information in this country
Somalia In the middle of the 19th century France, Italy, Great Britain and Ethiopia competed for prominence on the Horn of Africa and the territory inhabited by Somalis was divided by the above-mentioned nations. In the 1860s France occupied the current territory of Djibouti and called it French Somaliland. The British established a protectorate, British Somaliland, in northern Somalia in the 1880s. The Italians bought the territory of southern Somalia, Italian Somaliland, from the sultan of Zanzibar in 1889 and the Ethiopians seized the area called Ogaden. After the Second World War, Italian Somaliland came under a UN trusteeship, administered by Italy in preparation for self-rule. On 1 July 1960, the Italian and British Somaliland, having gained independence, formed one state, the United Republic of Somalia.

From the inception of independence, many of the ethnic Somalis in Ethiopia and Kenya wanted to join the newly formed Somali state and the Somali government supported the concept of self-determination for the people of the Somali-inhabited areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and French Somaliland (now Djibouti), including the right to be united within a greater Somalia. This stance became particularly contentious with regards to Ogaden and inter-state conflict broke out between Somalia and Ethiopia intermittently in the course of three decades (in 1960, 1964, 1973, 1983 and 1987).

Internally, the multi-party democratic form of governance that was set up at independence was abruptly ended in 1969 with a bloodless military coup. The Supreme Revolutionary Council, under the leadership of General Siad Barre, established a socialist political system under military rule. The Barre regime outlawed the clan system that deeply characterises the Somali society, forged close ties to the Soviet Union and imposed a Somali brand of "scientific socialism". After a 1978 setback on the Ogadeni battlefront, a military faction consisting of officers from the Darod clan (Marjeeten sub-clan) unsuccessfully launched a military coup. In 1979 the military rule was replaced by a presidential one-party rule with Barre at the helm.

In the 1980s, the Barre regime became more and more dominated by the leader's own Marehan clan (in contradiction to its ideology) and increasingly repressive towards other clans. The authoritarianism incited popular discontent and largely clan-based armed resistance started to sprout, marking the beginning of the intra-state conflict which has continued well into the 21st century. For the remainder of the 1980s, these groups waged guerrilla warfare in different parts of the country with the aim of overthrowing the regime. Towards the end of the decade, the main rebel groups coalesced militarily and managed to overthrow the Barre regime on 26 January 1991.

However, in the power vacuum after Barre's fall the various clan-based armed (and highly fractious) militias began to violently compete for government power and thus pushing the intra-state conflict to the degree of state collapse. As the Somali state lost central authority, the north-western region took the chance to self-declare the independent Republic of Somaliland in 1991. At the beginning of the 21st century the Somali intra-state conflict over government persisted, however, with some new forms of resistance (for example with more Islamist undercurrents) and more robust attempts at forging central administrations (like the 2000 Transitional National Government and the 2004 Transitional Federal Government).

The collapse of the Somali state in 1991 spurred, not only conflict between armed groups and the various provisional governments, but also among and within the oft-clan based opposition movements, with the result of a great number of non-state conflicts. Within the context of this struggle for power, one-sided violence was also used by the armed groups.

Somalia provided secondary warring support to WSLF (Western Somali Liberation Front) in the Ethiopian intra-state 1975-1983 conflict over the Ogaden territory.

Since 1946 Somalia has experienced the inter-state, intra-state, non-state and one-sided categories of UCDP violence.