Sudan

Sudan

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War & minor conflict
1975 -
Sudan: Abyei Sudan: government Sudan - South Sudan (Common Border)
Non-state conflict
1989 -
Agar Dinka - Gok Dinka Aliap Dinka - Mundari Atuot Dinka - Ciek Dinka Atuot Dinka - Jur Beli Awan Dinka - Luac Jang Dinka Awlad al-Zuid - Awlad Omran Awlad Heiban (Misseriya) - Awlad Serur (Misseriya) and Awlad Metanin (Misseriya) Awlad Zeid - Zaghawa Bari - Mundari Beni Halba - Gimir Bor Dinka - Mundari Bor Dinka - Murle Didinga - Toposa Dinka - Nuer Falata - Habaniya Gok Dinka - Rek Dinka Gony Dinka - Thiyic Dinka Habaniya - Reizegat Baggara Hol Dinka - Lou Nuer Hotiya Baggara - Newiba, Mahariba and Mahamid Janjaweed - JEM Janjaweed - SLM/A Janjaweed - Bin Kulaib faction - Janjaweed - Moro faction Jikany Nuer - Lou Nuer Lou Nuer - Murle LRA - SPLM/A Masalit - Reizegat Abbala Ma'aliya - Hamar Ma'aliya - Rizeigat Baggara Ma'aliya - Zaghawa Misseria - Ngok Dinka Misseria - Rizeigat Abbala Ngok Dinka - Shiluk Pari - Toposa PDF - SSDF Reizegat Abbala - Beni Hussein Reizegat Abbala - Terjam Reizegat Abbala - Zaghawa Salamat Baggara - Misseria SLM/A - SLM/A - MM SPLM/A - SPLM/A-WN SPLM/A - SSDF SPLM/A - UNRF II SPLM/A - WNBF SSDF - SSUM/A
One-sided violence
1989 -
Government of Sudan - civilians Janjaweed - civilians JEM - civilians SLM/A - civilians SLM/A - MM - civilians SPLM/A - civilians SSDF - civilians
Peace agreement
1975 -
Sudan
Additional info
CPA - New Sudan, Old Sudan or Two Sudan? - A review of the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement Darfur - Dimensions and Dilemmas of a Complex Stuation Sharing Power - Enabling Peace? Evaluating Sudan\'s Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2005
Sudan Sudan became independent in 1956 from the United Kingdom. Sudan is located in a conflict torn area of the world with many of its adjacent countries being involved in armed conflicts. In terms of ethnicity, language, and religion Sudan is a very heterogeneous country. The north is mainly "Arab" and Muslim whilst the south is primarily "African" and Christian/Animist. However, this dichotomy is very simplistic and the reality is much more complicated, with a large variety of ethnic groups both in the north and in the south.

Sudan is categorised by a persistent domination of the centre over the marginalised peripheries. The centre is located in the capital Khartoum and consists of different elites from the Northern region of Sudan. Even though the Northern region comprises less than two percent of the Sudanese population they utterly dominate the politics in Sudan. However, this is not a solid united elite but different elites that compete over power among themselves. This competition has meant that Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Regardless of the type of government, the elites from the Northern Region have been at the country's helm. This dominance is also evident when it comes to the economy, with the elites based in the centre possessing immense private wealth and the people in the marginalised areas being exceedingly poor.

The first intra-state conflict in Sudan occurred 1963-72 when a southern based rebel group called Anya Nya was fighting for the independence of the south. During two years in the 70s a small scale conflict over governmental power took place, involving a communist group in 1971 and an Islamic group in 1976. In 1983 a large-scale conflict over governmental power began when the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army started a rebellion. The group was based in the South and their leader John Garang stated that "The SPLA is fighting to establish a united Socialist Sudan". During this period of conflict the SPLM/A was supported by the Ugandan government whilst the Sudanese government supported Ugandan rebels. However, relations between Uganda and Sudan improved in the early 2000s and the government of Sudan was a secondary warring party in the Ugandan conflict on the government side in 2002 and 2005. The conflict between SPLM/A and the government took place from 1983 to 2004 and in 2005 the parties signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement. In 2003 fighting in Sudan broke out in Darfur, the most western region of the country when two armed groups started an armed rebellion against the government.

2011 was a historic year in Sudan. In January 2011 a huge majority of the population in South Sudan voted for independence. However, the area of Abyei was denied its referendum and a territorial conflict over Abyei broke out between the government of Sudan and the autonomous region of South Sudan in May 2011. On 9 July 2011 the new nation of South Sudan was born. In 2012, Sudan and South Sudan fought each other in an interstate conflict over their common, disputed, border.

In addition to these state-based conflicts, Sudan has suffered from many nonstate conflicts as well as large scale one-sided violence conducted primarily by the government side. The government of Sudan has a practice of arming militias as a response to armed rebellion. These militias are infamous for their gross violations of human rights and the most infamous is the feared Janjaweed militia of Darfur.

Since 1946 Sudan has experienced the interstate, intrastate, nonstate and one-sided categories of UCDP organised violence.