South Sudan

South Sudan

South Sudan South Sudan became independent from Sudan on 9 July 2011. For information on armed conflicts taking place prior to this date, for instance the armed conflict between the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A, see the Sudan country page.

After a conflict between southern based rebels and the Government of Sudan between 1963-1972 (Anya-Nya) and 1983-2005 (SPLM/A) warfare between rebels in the South and the regime in Khartoum ceased in 2005. The reason was the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed 9 January 2005 (for more information, see Sudan country page). The CPA stipulated that a referendum in which independence should be one option should be held six year after the signing of the CPA and if the turnout of the referendum was in favor of independence South Sudan should be a sovereign country six months later. On 9 January an overwhelming majority voted for independence and on 9 July the new country Republic of South Sudan was born. The short history of independent South Sudan has been marred by intrastate conflicts as well as nonstate conflicts.

At its birth South Sudan was involved in intrastate conflicts as the new regime in Juba was challenged by the two rebel groups of SSDM/A and SSLM/A. These groups were supported by the government in Sudan. In 2012 South Sudan was also involved in an interstate conflict with Sudan over its common border.

In addition to these statebased conflicts nonstate conflicts have plagued South Sudan since its independence. In particular the region of Jonglei have experienced large-scale nonstate conflicts with the Lou Nuer against the Murle being the worst with more than 1400 people killed in 2011.

Since 1946 South Sudan has experienced the interstate, intrastate, nonstate and one-sided violence categories of UCDP organised violence.