Brazil

Brazil

Brazil Following three centuries of Portuguese rule, Brazil became independent in 1822 and a constitutional democracy in 1889. Between 1930 and 1985, however, Brazilian political life was characterised by military dominance with several dictatorships and bloodless coup attempts. It should be noted, though, that the military appointed civilians governments after most of these coups. This was in stark contrast to 1964-85, when a military dictatorship imposed harsh authoritarian rule to suppress political opposition. Following an internal power struggle among the military leadership, the political power was transferred to a civilian administration 1985, and Brazil became democratic again.

Despite sometimes tense relations with its neighbouring countries, Brazil has not been involved in any armed conflicts since 1946. The country has also abstained from participating with secondary warring forces in conflicts, but has contributed to several UN peacekeeping missions.

Police in Brazil and government-instigated "death squads" have been reported of using one-sided violence at numerous occasions. The circumstances for these deaths are often unclear as the government claim the victims were caught up in shootouts with criminals. There were, however, several attacks on civilians unrelated to criminality where the government forces seemed to act out of retaliation or targeting the political opposition and human rights activists.

Criminality is widespread in Brazil, and organised criminal groups have been fighting against each other in non-state conflicts, often with the intent of taking over or controlling the drug trade in certain areas.

Since 1946 Brazil has experienced the non-state and one-sided categories of UCDP organised violence.