China

China

China China has a history that can be traced back about 3 500 years, with the last emperor ousted in 1911. During the 1920s, two political movements became significant as a response to the rule of local warlords. The nationalist KMT (Kuomintang) led by Chiang Kai-shek took control over the government in 1928 and an intrastate conflict started against the communist PLA (People's Liberation Army). Following a Japanese invasion in the 1930s, the nationalists and communists joined forces as an anti-Japanese alliance in 1936-1945.

When the Second World War ended, intrastate conflict resumed in 1946-49 until the KMT government was forced to withdraw to the island of Taiwan, in effect separating that territory from the Beijing-ruled mainland. The conflict between the two parties continued in 1949-50, 1954, and 1958 but is then classified as an interstate conflict between China and Taiwan. In these years, the Taiwanese forces also included KMT troops based across the Chinese border in Burma.

Before the communist takeover in Beijing, another brief intrastate conflict occurred on the island of Taiwan in 1947 when the local population fought the Chinese government (at the time the KMT) to gain local self-rule.

After the Chinese communist party became the government in 1949, it pursued a policy of establishing control over the territories which it claimed belonged to China, causing intrastate conflict as well as contending several borders to neighbouring states. The government claims led to an intrastate conflict over the territory of Tibet, which had declared independence in 1912. The conflict China (Tibet) was active in 1950, 1956, and 1959. Also, there have been several interstate conflicts between China and neighbouring countries. Conflicts were fought against India in 1962 and 1967, against Burma in 1969, against the Soviet Union in 1969, and against Vietnam in 1978-81, 1983-84, and 1986-88. China was also active as a secondary warring party on the side of North Korea against South Korea in 1950-53.

The one-party state established in China since 1949 has suppressed opposition through the use of one-sided violence, including the 1989 attacks on student-led demonstrations in central Beijing.

Since 1946 China has experienced the interstate, intrastate, and one-sided categories of UCDP organised violence.