Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Costa Rica Costa Rica was one of several Central American provinces that jointly declared their independence from Spain in 1821. Two years later Costa Rica joined the Central American Federal Republic, but this federation disintegrated in 1838, at which time the country proclaimed its sovereignty and independence.

During the 20th century Costa Rica enjoyed peaceful democratic governance - with two exceptions, in 1917-1919 when a dictatorship prevailed and in 1948 when an intra-state conflict broke out. The immediate pretext for the conflict was the unwillingness of the sitting government, led by Calderón Guardia, to step down from power after loosing an election in 1948. Upon the annulment of the election, José Figueres Ferrer and his National Liberation Army staged a military coup, which escalated into a six-week long war before the government forces were defeated.

Upon their victory, the National Liberation Army ruled by decree for eighteen months and after conducting elections to a constituent assembly, the junta turned over power to the 1948 election winner, Otilio Ulate Blanco. Having relinquished power, the military junta transformed itself into a legal political party, National Liberation Party, and José Figueres Ferrer was later elected President.

As a result of the 1948 war and the consequent 1949 constitution, Costa Rica has no standing army.

Since 1946 Costa Rica has experienced the intra-state category of UCDP organized violence.