Egypt

Egypt

Egypt The state of Egypt proclaimed unilateral independence from the United Kingdom -its occupying power since 1882- in 1922, after a series of revolts against the British regime. The country was however not declared a republic until 1956, after the monarchy was ousted in 1953 and the military seized power. The first President of Egypt was Muhammad Naguib, who was succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Since the establishment of the Republic, Egypt has been ruled mainly by authoritarian military figures, having a parliament but lacking in free and fair elections and democratic rights. The administrations that have ruled Egypt since independence have fought to suppress democratic change as well as Islamic extremism, and have instead adopted an ideology of secular Arab nationalism and -at times- Pan-Arabism.

Egypt has experienced a number of interstate conflicts since 1946, almost all of which have included its eastern neighbour Israel. In 1948-1949 Egypt joined several other Arab countries in an attack on the newly proclaimed state of Israel in an attempt to hinder its creation. The inter-state armed conflict that followed was however won by the Israelis.

In 1951-52 Egypt fought an interstate conflict with the UK over the status of the Suez Canal, when Egypt repudiated a 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty which gave the British the right to keep troops in the canal area. The Suez Canal dispute arose again in 1956, when Egypt fought a short interstate conflict against attacking forces from the UK, France and Israel as President Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal. Although the conflict was a military success for Israel, the UK and France they were soon forced to withdraw from the occupied Suez Canal due to international pressure.

Egypt and Israel however fought further interstate conflicts over the Suez -and also the Sinai Peninsula- with armed conflicts breaking out in 1967, 1969-70 and 1973. In the 1967 conflict (also known as the Six Day War) Egypt lost control of the Sinai to Israel, and the attempt to recapture the territory in 1973 also ended in an Egyptian military defeat. Anwar Sadat, Nasser's successor, signed a peace agreement with Israel in 1979, regaining the Sinai in a land-for-peace deal.

In the domestic sphere the government of Egypt has been challenged by Islamist rebel groups, with the Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group) engaging in an intra-state armed conflict in 1993-1998. Other Islamist groups have also pursued violent activities inside Egypt, and both the Tawhid wal Jihad (Unity and Holy War) group and Al-Gama'a al Islamiyya have engaged in one-sided violence. The government of Egypt has also been involved in the use of one-sided violence.

In 1991 Egypt took part as a secondary warring party in the international coalition that supported Kuwait in the interstate conflict with Iraq.

Since 1946, Egypt has experienced the interstate, intrastate and one-sided categories of UCDP organised violence.