India

India

India The Republic of India gained its independence in 1947, after being under the control of the British Empire from approximately the mid-19th century. Just before independence vast swathes of what had been British India were however carved out to become the independent state of Pakistan. India became a republic in 1950, and has since its independence been a vast patchwork of religions, ethnicities and tribal groups. This inclusion into the Indian Union of a large number of different identities with varying aspirations has created a state which has been suffering from a wide variety of armed conflicts.

In the sphere of inter-state conflicts India has experienced conflicts over borders with both Pakistan (Kashmir) and China. Conflicts with Pakistan have flared up at intervals, for example in 1948, 1965, 1971 and 1999 when the conflict reached the intensity of war. Border conflict with China has been less intense, reaching the level of war only in 1962. India has also been involved in an inter-state conflict with the state of Hyderabad, which at independence did not wish to join the Indian Union but was forcefully incorporated after an armed conflict in 1948. Hyderabad itself experienced an intra-state conflict over government power in 1947-1948, before being incorporated into India.

Regarding intra-state conflicts India has been struck by a number of conflicts over territory, primarily over the status of areas in which ethnic or religious groups wish to claim as separate or independent states. This has been so especially in India's northeast, where rebel groups based mainly on tribal communities have fought the government in Assam, Tripura, Nagaland and Manipur. The government has also fought Sikh insurgents over Punjab/Khalistan, and various insurgent groups over the Kashmir area, which is also claimed by Pakistan. Regarding government power the Indian government has confronted several Communist groups, such as the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC), the People's War Group (PWG) and the Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-M). Most of these conflicts have taken place both in the Cold War and post-Cold War eras.

Tensions between the large number of ethnic and religious groups that populate India have also given rise to a number of non-state conflicts. Primarily these have centred on the Hindu-Muslim divide, but conflicts have also been recorded between tribal groups (such as Assamese against Biharis) and different factions of rebel groups (such as clashes between different organisations in Nagaland).

The many conflicts in India have also been affected by one-sided violence against civilians, being carried out both by the government of India and by a wide range of rebel groups across the country.

In terms of secondary support to other actors in conflict the Indian government has been a secondary warring party on the side of East Pakistan (Bangladesh) when this country separated itself from West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan). India was also a secondary warring party on the side of the government of Sri Lanka in 1990 in its battle with Tamil separatists.

Since 1946 India has experienced the inter-state, intra-state, non-state and one-sided categories of UCDP organised violence